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(The Philosophical Part)
VISION OF UNIVERSAL FORM
ARJUNA REQUESTS TO SEE COSMIC FORM
Arjuna said, "Oh Ocean of kindness, you have made clear that which cannot be told in words. The form you assume at the time when the five elements merge in the Brahman and when no sign of life and Maya remains is your place of rest. You had kept this form in your heart hidden even from the Vedas and now you have revealed this secret to me. You gave this spiritual knowledge to me in an instant. I should not speak as a separate entity after realising you. There is nothing in this universe without you, but it is my misfortune that I speak as if I am somebody different from you. (11:44-50).
I was carrying the ego that I am an individual named Arjuna and was considering the Kauravas as my relations. Not only that, I was also having a bad dream about the retribution I would face after death from the sin of killing them when suddenly you woke me up from that dream. I considered myself somebody when in reality I am nobody and considered those others as my people whom I find are not in reality related to me at all. You saved me from this extreme madness. But your efforts were not wasted and you succeeded in getting rid of my ignorance. (11:51-64).
You explained to me the nature of Maya from which all creatures are created and to which they return. (11:70). And after explaining Maya, you showed me the root place of the Supreme Soul. By brushing aside Maya which was obscuring Knowledge you introduced me into Brahman the Ultimate Principle. Now I am convinced of all this, but now one more thought has come to mind and to whom else can I ask about it apart from you? (11:76-77).
By experiencing whatever you told me, my mind has become calm. I am eager to see that incomprehensible Divine Cosmic form by whose thought the expanse of this universe comes into existence and then disappears, which you call your original form and from which you get yourself reborn for some Divine purpose by taking different two or four armed forms; and after that purpose is fulfilled, return to the original form, the one that the Upanishads sing about and sages treasure in their hearts. I am eager to see this form with my own eyes. (11:81-88).
I do not know whether I am worthy of seeing your Cosmic form, therefore first consider my capacity and only then start showing me your Cosmic form, and if I am not worthy then refuse to do so. (11:89). But I am sure you will show it to me because you do assume different forms both for the sake of both knowledgeable and ignorant people. Secondly, you are so large-hearted that once you think of giving something you do not think about whether the person is fit or not. You have granted a holy thing like liberation even to your enemies. (11:97-99), You are benevolent to even those who do disservice to you and are charitable even to the unworthy. (11:106). Please do satisfy my craving to see your form if you are sure I am capable of seeing it with my eyes. (11:111).
SHRI KRISHNA SHOWS HIS COSMIC FORM
Shri Krishna said, "Arjuna, you asked me to show my Cosmic form and if I showed you only that then what is so big about it? Now you will see that the entire universe is contained in my form. (11:123).
Different forms within the Cosmic form: Look at these forms of mine: some lean and some fat, some short and some tall, some spread out and some straight, some limitless, some uncontrollable and some tame, some active some inactive, some impersonal and some loving, some very strict, some alert and some negligent, some shallow and some deep, some generous and some miserly, some angry and some calm, some arrogant some quiet, some happy, some noisy, some silent, some sociable, some greedy, some detached, some awake and some sleepy, some satisfied and some in difficulties, some pleased, some armed and some unarmed, some very fearful and some very sociable, some frightening, some strange, some in trance, some busy in social work and some busy sustaining them lovingly, some decimating people in anger, and some merely witnessing everything. Like this there are countless forms in it. (11:124-130).
"Besides these, some are shining with different colours by their effulgence. Some are like red hot gold, some are brown, some are like bright orange sky, some are beautiful like the universe studded with rubies, some are red like the rising sun. Some are like pure crystal and some blue like sapphire, some black and some red, some yellow like gold and some dark like rain clouds, some fair like Champa flower and some very green, some white like the moon. Watch these forms of mine with various colours. Like colours they are shaped also differently. Some are so beautiful that they will defeat even Madan (Cupid). Some are well formed, some bright and attractive like a treasure of decorative beauty unveiled. (11:131- 138). Arjuna, there is no end to the shapes and you will see the whole universe on each of these shapes. (11:140).
Activities of the forms: "When even one of these forms opens its eyes, the twelve Adityas (suns) are created and when the eyes close they merge together and vanish. Flames spread out from the hot breath from the mouth of the form from which are born Pavaka etc., the eight Vasus and when the eyebrows meet together in anger, the eleven Rudras are born. But when the forms become soft, countless life-givers like Ashwinikumars are formed and through the ears various Vayus are generated. Thus, by the simple play of the same form, gods and siddhas are created. And there are countless number of forms in my Cosmic form which even Vedas found it difficult to describe and which even Brahmadeo could not fathom. Now you actually see many of these forms and enjoy thoroughly the wonderful experience. (11:141-147).
"There are seeds of the world in each of the pores of the forms. Like dust particles in a light beam one may see many universes flying around in the joints of the organs of the forms. In the region of every organ can be seen the expanse of the universe. Now, if you also desire to see what lies beyond the universe, then that is also not very difficult because you will able to see whatever you wish in this form of mine." (11:148-151).
ARJUNA CANNOT SEE COSMIC FORM
Shri Krishna noticed that Arjuna was silent and unresponsive but with the eagerness still on his face. He remarked to Arjuna, "I demonstrated to you the Cosmic form but you are not seeing it." Arjuna replied, "How can I, with my ordinary eyes, see the Cosmic form you are showing me, which according to the Shastras is invisible to senses and can be seen only with the vision of knowledge?" (11:152-159).
ARJUNA BESTOWED WITH DIVINE VISION
Shri Krishna said, " You are right. I should have first bestowed on you the power to see the Cosmic form but I was overcome by the emotional surge of love for you and forgot to do so. (11:161). I am now giving you the power of divine vision to enable you to see my real form. Use that power to enjoy the glory of my expanse encompassing the universe." As soon as Shri Krishna said this the darkness of ignorance melted. (11:176-177). Thus Shri Krishna showed Arjuna the glory of the Cosmic form. (11:179)
VISIBLE WORLD VANISHES
Once Shri Krishna blessed Arjuna, Maya (illusion) vanished. In the light of that glory he saw miracles everywhere. Engrossed in the appreciation of the Cosmic form Arjuna said,
"Oh! Who took away the wide sky which was here just now? Also where did the living and non-living world go? Directions have vanished. It is not possible to know where the sky and the nether has gone! The visible world also has disappeared. At the time when the mind-ness of mind got lost, intellect became uncontrollable and the tendencies of the senses recessed themselves together into the heart, the quiet and concentration reached the peak as if all thoughts are under the spell of delusion."
Surprised, he began looking in all directions and immediately he saw the four armed form of Shri Krishna before him but it had grown and spread itself everywhere in various forms. (See notes at the end of the chapter.) Shri Krishna did not let anything else remain except Himself. At first Arjuna felt happy seeing Shri Krishna's form but as soon as he opened his eyes he saw the Cosmic form. Thus Shri Krishna fulfilled his desire of seeing the Cosmic form with own eyes. (11:185-196)
COSMIC FORM - BEAUTIFUL AND FRIGHTENING
Then Arjuna observed the many faces of Lord Vishnu wherein beauty and magnificence prevailed everywhere. He also saw there mysterious and frightening faces. Similarly, he also saw heavenly, ornamented and soft faces. Actually his divine sight could not see where the faces ended. Then he began to observe with curiosity the eyes of that form and noticed rows and rows of eyes like opened lotus flowers of various colours shining like the sun. Seeing various such wonders in a single Cosmic form he realised that there are innumerable such scenes in it. Then his eagerness to see where the feet, the crown and arms were located increased. (11:197-206). Thus Arjuna saw all the organs of that limitless Cosmic form. He saw the greatness of that Cosmic form bedecked with the ornaments of diverse types of jewels. How can I describe you the ornaments which the Supreme Brahman itself had turned itself into in order to bedeck its own body? Who has the capacity to understand that the expanse of the divine effulgence which lights the auras of the Sun and the Moon and illuminates this universe is the ornamentation of the Cosmic form? Arjuna saw that Shri Krishna had decorated himself by ornaments which were also himself. (11:208-213).
Weapon wielding arms
Then with his divine sight, he began to observe the hands of the Cosmic
form. He noticed that they were straight and holding weapons shining
like the deluge of fire,. He saw that Shri Krishna had filled the
whole universe by becoming himself the organs, himself the ornaments, himself
the arms and the weapons held in them, himself the individual soul and
himself the body. The stars were bursting like popcorn due to the
rays from the weapons held in the innumerable hands; and fire itself was
getting scorched by it and trying to take shelter in the ocean. (11:214-217).
Cosmic form everywhere Frightened, Arjuna looked away and turned his eyes to the neck and the crown. There were bouquets of flowers on the crown, strings of flowers on the body and bright garlands in the neck. Round the waist was wrapped the shining yellow cloth. His whole body was covered with sandal paste. Arjuna was so bewildered by the various decorations that he could not understand whether Shri Krishna was sitting or standing or lying down. Then he opened his eyes and what he saw was the Cosmic form everywhere. Then he closed his eyes and sat quietly but he saw the same Cosmic form inside. When out of fright, because he was seeing innumerable faces, he turned his back he saw the same faces, hands and feet there too. See the effect of God's blessing! Arjuna's seeing and not seeing were both covered by Shri Krishna. (11:218-230).
Brilliance of the Cosmic form How can one describe the brilliance of that Cosmic form? The combined brilliance of the twelve suns at the time of the great deluge was nothing compared to it. (11:237-238). The entire expanse of the universe could be seen on the Cosmic form. When Arjuna saw all this on the body of Shri Krishna, the Supreme God, whatever feeling he had about the universe being different from himself vanished and his mind easily dissolved. He was flooded internally with joy and his external organs became loose. From head to foot his hair stood erect and his body was covered with sweat, His body was shaking due to waves of internal bliss. His eyes were flooded with tears of happiness and mind was filled by emotions. But even in that bliss of the Brahman there still remained some degree of non-identity between Shri Krishna and Arjuna because of which Arjuna looked around sighing. (11:244-254). Then, folding his hands he spoke,
Everybody and everything contained in the Cosmic form "Oh Master, you have done a great favour on this ordinary person because of which I could see this Cosmic form. I have personally seen that you are the actual support of this universe and I felt very happy by it. Oh my object of worship, innumerable worlds are visible on your body. Heaven along with the gods are visible on your Cosmic form. I am seeing the five elements and all the living beings created from them on your body. The Satyalok with Brahmadeo living in it is present in your form. Another place I can see is Kailas with Mahadeo and Parvati. What more! I am seeing even you in this Cosmic form. The families of Kashyap and other Rishis and the Nether place along with the Nagas are also seen in your Cosmic form. It is as if the fourteen worlds are depicted on each of your organs and the innumerable people in these worlds are also in those picture. Thus I am seeing your unworldly greatness. (11:255-265).
"When I watch with the divine sight, I see that all your hands are in action at the same time. Your limitless bellies appear to me like treasures of cosmic eggs thrown open. Your heads which number in thousands look like fruits hanging on the tree that is Brahman. Similarly there are rows and rows of countless mouths and eyes. The heaven, the nether world, the earth, the directions and the space have lost their differentiating identities and the entire universe appears on your Cosmic body. Not an iota of space may be found to be without you. This is the extent you have occupied everything. It is apparent that you have pervaded all the different kinds of creatures in this universe. (11:266-273)
You are your own support "When I began to search for the place where have you come from, what supports you, I realised that you are your own support. You are not born of anybody but you are without origin and self-born. You are neither standing nor sitting, you are neither tall nor short; above you and below you there is only yourself. If you ask what your age is like and how you look, the answer is both are only like yourself. Your back, belly are all yourself and I find that whatever I see is all only you. But I find one thing lacking in your Cosmic form and that is you do not have a beginning, the middle and the end. Thus I have observed your Cosmic form. (11:274-280).
Your usual form is a favour for devotees This great Cosmic form of yours is marked with countless forms. The forms from each of which the three worlds get created and dissolved are spread like hair on your body. When I began pondering over who you, who have created such an expanse of the universe, really are and whom you belong, then I realise that you are the driver of my chariot. Oh Shri Krishna, even after being all pervading you assume this loving form only to shower favours on your devotees. The mind and eyes get satiated seeing your dark form with four arms and if one desires to embrace it, it can be easily embraced by the span of two arms. You assume this beautiful form to favour the devotee but we think of it as ordinary because our sight is limited. Now because of the divine sight that you have bestowed on me this defect is gone and I could see your true greatness. (11:281-294).
But I realise that this vast form belongs to you who are now sitting on the chariot. (11:295).
Unbearable brightness I am not worthy of even getting amazed by your form the brightness of which fills everywhere. Its brightness is so unearthly that even sun appears pale in comparison. It is getting increasingly intense and scorching and even my divine sight cannot bear looking at the brightness. It appears as if the fire at the time of deluge which is dormant in the third eye of Lord Shiva has come out. Similarly the Cosmic egg engulfed in the five fires ignited by the brightness of your Cosmic form is turning into cinders. There is no end to the extensive unearthly brightness of your form which I have witnessed in my lifetime. (11:296-306).
YOU ARE THE BRAHMAN
Shri Krishna, you are the immutable Supreme Brahman which the Upanishads search for and are beyond the sound AUM of three and half syllables. You are the root of all forms and the one and only place of dissolution of the universe. You are inexhaustible, fathomless and imperishable. You are the life of Dharma and though birthless you are constantly new. You are the master of this universe and lying beyond the thirty-six principles you are the thirty-seventh principle Purusha. (11:307-309). (See Ch 13 for thirty-six principles.)
You have no beginning, middle or the end and your power is boundless. You have limbs all over. Moon and sun are your eyes and they exhibit the play of pleasure and displeasure, punishing some and supporting others with benevolence. (11:310-311).
YOUR FORM IS FRIGHTENING
Your mouth spits fire and your tongue, like the flames dancing during a forest fire is moving among the teeth and the jaws. The universe is getting scorched by the heat of the fire from your mouth and from the brilliance of you Cosmic form. (11:312-314).
And I am seeing that the heaven and the nether world, earth and the sky, the ten directions and all horizons are all pervaded by you alone. How can I understand this amazing form of yours? I cannot even imagine this gigantic and all-pervading form of yours and neither can I bear the brilliance of your ferocious form. Instead of feeling the pleasure of watching your Cosmic form I find even surviving to be difficult. I was enjoying the pleasures of the worldly life until I saw your Cosmic form but now I am disgusted with them and actually am feeling frightened. Oh! How the desire of seeing your Cosmic form has been fulfilled! (11:315- 325).
SAGES, GODS ALL SURRENDER TO YOU
Now look at those sages. Some of them
are dissolving into your form in good spirit after burning the seeds of
their karmas by the brightness of your body. While some are frightened
and praying before you, "Oh God, we have fallen in the ocean of ignorance
and are entangled in the web of sense-objects. We are caught between
the heavenly pleasures and the worldly life. Who else except you
can will save us from this calamity? Therefore we have surrendered to in
all aspects." There are also sages, Siddhas and assemblies of Vidyadhars
who are praising you with holy words. (11:326-331).
The eleven Rudras, twelve Adityas, eight Vasus, all Sadhyas, Ashwinikumars, Vishwedeo and Vayu with all their splendour as also the Manes, Gandharvas, Yakshas, demons, Indra and other gods and all siddhas are observing eagerly from their respective planes your divine form and wonder struck they are bowing to you. Your form itself is the reward for their humble obeisance. (11:332-337)
EVEN GODS ARE FRIGHTENED
Even the gods became frightened after observing your form occupying the three worlds because from whatever direction one looks it is always facing you. Even if the form is only one, it has strange, frightening mouths and eyes and countless hands bearing weapons. This form has countless beautiful arms, legs and stomachs and various hues and each mouth appears to be eager to swallow. These huge mouths of yours appear frightening because they are not able to hide the teeth. You have reduced me, a person of whom even Rudra in his most destructive mood is afraid and from whom Yama the god of death hides, to a state of shivering inside and out due to fright. It is really surprising that this plague, when its frightfulness defeats very fear itself, is called Cosmic form. (11:338-352)
Your angry mouths appear as if they are at
war with the lord of death and even sky appears to be dwarfed in comparison
with their expanse. These mouths are not identical but each differs
from the rest in colour and form. The three worlds are turning to
ashes by their brilliance. Even the brilliance has mouths and they
contain teeth and jaws. (11:353-356)
I do not understand what you wish to achieve by creating this show of fright but I have started feeling the fear of death. Oh Master, my desire to see your Cosmic form is now fulfilled and I am now satisfied. Who cares if this material body is destroyed? But now I have doubts whether the consciousness will survive. I am shivering by fear inside out including the body, mind, intellect and the soul. I became obsessed of seeing your Cosmic form but after seeing it my knowledge and understanding are lost. Now I am wondering whether our relation of Guru and disciple will survive. (11:365-370)
ARJUNA REQUESTS TO WIND UP THE SHOW
Now please wind up this colossal form of
yours. If I knew beforehand that you would do something like this
I would not have even mentioned it to you. Now please control this
of yours and release me from this great fear. (11:383-385)
These Kaurava warriors and the sons of Dhritarashtra have gone into your mouth along with their families. Also the kings of various nations who have come to help them have not survived. You are swallowing the death-like weapons and the four-pronged army and the chariots along with their horses without even your teeth touching them. You have swallowed the truthful and valiant Bhishmacharya and the brahmin Dronacharya. The great fighter Karna the son of Surya also entered into your jaws. And I also saw that you swiped the warriors on our side too. Oh God! What strange situation has arisen out of the favour I begged for?. By my prayers I have brought death to the world. Nobody can avoid what is written in one's destiny!" (11:392-402).
Arjuna was thus feeling unhappy and wailing
in distress. He really did not understand the intention of Shri Krishna
in showing him the Cosmic form. Arjuna was in the grips of the delusion
that he was the slayer and the Kauravas were the slain. Shri Krishna
showed the Cosmic form to him to remove his misunderstanding and show to
him that nobody kills anybody but it is He, Shri Krishna who destroys
everybody. But Arjuna still could not understand it and he was feeling
distressed by the fright. He then repeated the description of the
destruction he was observing in the Cosmic form. (11:410-443)
He added, "Oh Shri Krishna, You are understood only through the Vedas, venerable to the whole universe and the root cause of the three worlds. It is because of this that I requested you to show the Cosmic form but you immediately became eager to swallow the three worlds. Therefore I am wondering as to who you really are and why you have acquired so many horrible mouths. Also why you are holding in your hands so many weapons. And why you are frightening us in frequent anger, by growing taller than the sky and with dreadful eyes. Why are you competing with death? (11:444-449).
SHRI KRISHNA TELLS WHO HE IS
To this Shri Krishna replied, "You are asking me who I am and why I have assumed this ferocious form. Then listen. I am really death and am expanding my form to destroy the universe. My mouths are extended everywhere and I am going to swallow all people. (11:450-451). Arjuna, all of you Pandavas are safely outside the range of the calamity of destruction. Remember that only you Pandavas are mine therefore I am swallowing all others. (11:456).
You are only instrumental You have seen this universe enter my mouth and surely nothing out of it will survive. The boasts of this army are meaningless. (11:457-458). Their utterances may appear to be sharper than weapons, more scorching and dangerous than fire but these warriors are nothing better or more useful than fruits in a painting. This is not an army but toys arranged for decoration. The strength on which their bodies do actions has already been destroyed by me. Now these warriors are as lifeless as the statues in a potter's house. (11:463-466). Therefore Arjuna, come to your senses and get up. (11:468). This army which has advantageously come to the battlefield, has already died. So Arjuna, it is merely for namesake that you are instrumental in destroying it. (11:470-471).
The gathering of the army is only an illusion. When you saw them falling into my mouth, then itself they were dead. I have already killed them. You are merely instrumental in killing them. So be victorious and let the world say that those relatives who had become oppressive by their arrogance and were unconquerable by their strength were destroyed effortlessly by Arjuna." (11:475- 481).
ARJUNA HAS A DOUBT
Arjuna said, "Oh Shri Krishna, I agree when you say that you are the Death and swallowing the universe is your play. But it does not stand to reason that when it is not yet the time for the destruction of the universe you should assume the role of death and destroy the universe. (11:490-492).
"It is true that you are ceaseless and you assume your three states of creation, sustenance and destruction which are active at their appropriate times. At the time of creation the states of sustenance and destruction are not present. At the time of sustenance the states of creation and destruction are not active and later at the time of destruction, the states of creation and sustenance vanish. Today the universe is in the state of sustenance and at its height of enjoying it, therefore I do not find it proper that you should destroy it." (11:494-498).
Shri Krishna gestured his agreement with this and said, "I demonstrated to you that the life span of this army is over. Other persons will die in their own time." (11:499).
FEROCIOUSNESS IS WITHDRAWN
By the time these words where uttered Arjuna
saw that everything was as it was before. He said, "Shri Krishna,
you hold the strings of this universe. It is because of you that
the universe has regained its original state." Oh Shri Krishna, you are
well-known for pulling people out of sorrow. I am experiencing the
great bliss by thinking of it again and again. Because this world
is alive it is feeling great love for you, but the demons from these three
worlds fear you because you destroy those who are evil and they are running
away from you in all directions. But others, like gods, human beings,
Siddhas, Yakshas and all the living and nonliving are bowing to you out
of joy. I know why these demons are running away from you instead
of surrendering to you. You are the source of inner light and have
appeared in person therefore the demons are blown away like dust.
I had not understood this until now, but now I saw this unworldly greatness
of yours. (11:500-510).
You are the creator You are the eternal limitless Principle. You are full of countless attributes. You are the state of continuous balance. You are the chief of all gods. You are the life of these three worlds. You are inexhaustible with ever auspicious form. You are the principle beyond the truth and untruth. (11:512-513)
You are the origin of both Prakriti and Purush and are beyond Maya. You are eternal and nobody is older than you. You are the life and support of this world and you alone know the past and the future. Oh incomparable God, the Shrutis find happiness in your form. Maya which supports the three worlds itself has your support therefore you are called the highest place in which the Brahman rests after the end of the universe. In short it is you who have created this expanse of the universe therefore, Oh the Infinite, who can describe you? (11:514-518).
Is there any object or place not pervaded by you? Oh the Infinite one, you are the Vayu (wind), you are also the Yama who punishes, you are Varuna, Chandra (moon), Brahmadeo the creator and his parent. And whatever other forms you have are your manifestations with or without form. My obeisance to all of them." (11:519-522).
YOU ARE THE WORLD
Then Arjuna intently looked at Shri Krishna and was satisfied after observing each part of his body. Then he said, bowing at every sentence, "Oh Master, I bow to you. I really experienced that you are not separate from the world but you are everything in it. (11:523-536). But in ignorance I made the most improper error of behaving with you as one behaves with one's relatives. (11:537). You are a living deity and we used you for ordinary tasks for worldly gains. I have been a fool not to realise that you are the inner bliss of the yogis in samadhi and talked to you in anger. (11:542-543). Therefore Oh Master! Forgive me as a mother would if I have directly or indirectly committed indiscretion. (11:556). You are unique in these three worlds. There is none equal or superior to you. I do not know how to express this unworldly greatness of yours." (11:566).
ARJUNA REQUESTS FOR RETURN TO MATERIAL FORM
Speaking in this fashion, Arjuna, full of pure emotions, prostrated before Shri Krishna (11:567) and said, "I am feeling frightened of this Cosmic form therefore please restrain it and show me again your usual four-armed form which is more relaxing and which is experienced after practising all types of yogas or by studying the Shastras or by performing yajnas or after getting by charity. I am eager to see it again. (11:593-597). These eyes do not like seeing any form other than the material form. Nothing else other that that beautiful form is capable of giving us pleasure and liberation There is nothing else. Therefore, Oh God please restrain this Cosmic form and go back to your material form." (11:605-608).
SHRI KRISHNA REBUKES ARJNA
Shri Krishna said, "I have not seen another thoughtless person like you. You are not happy with so unworldly a thing you got. Instead, you are speaking insistently like a coward. When I show favour to anybody I give him only worldly things. Today, only for you have I arranged this demonstration of the Cosmic form. This most secret form of mine is beyond Maya and beyond the most limitless objects. The Avatars like Krishna etc. take place from here only. This form of mine is formed of only the effulgence of Knowledge and pervades the universe. There is no end to it, is steady and is the root of all world. Nobody has seen or heard of this Cosmic form because it cannot be gained by any external means. (11:609-616)
NO EXTERNAL MEANS CAN LEAD TO THE FORM
The Vedas maintained silence as soon as they reached up to this Cosmic form and Yajnas did not reach beyond the Heaven. The seekers gave up the practice of yoga because it was laborious and students of Shastras did develop liking for it. The perfectly performed actions raced to gain it but could reach only up to the Satyaloka level after great difficulty. Penance (Tapas) saw its splendour and its ferociousness vanished and thus it remained unattainably far from the path of austerity. The Cosmic form which you could see without efforts has not been seen by any human being in this world. Even Brahmadeo has not been fortunate enough to see this form which you did. (11:617-622)
Therefore you consider yourself fortunate by the vision of the Cosmic form and do not at all get frightened by it. Do not think that there is any other thing superior to this Cosmic form. (11:623)
You are trying to embrace the shadow rather than the real body. This four-armed form is not my real form. It is not proper that you love it eagerly. At least now you leave the desire for the four-armed form and do not ignore the Cosmic form. Even if it is frightening and vast, concentrate steadily on it. (11:629-633).
SHRI KRISHNA RESUMES MATERIAL FORM
You may meditate on my four-armed form for your external satisfaction but do not let your faith deviate from my Cosmic form. Save your love for it. Now you may gladly see my earlier form." So saying, Shri Krishna resumed his human form. (11:636-640)
Arjuna said, "Now I can breath a sigh of relief." (11:663)
ONLY DEVOTION CAN LEAD TO MY FORM
Shri Krishna asked, " Have you forgotten my instruction to first love the Cosmic form and then only come in person to meet my four-armed form? " (11:673-674).There are no worldly means of reaching my Cosmic form. (11:682). Remember that it can be found by only one means and that is by filling your mind with devotion. (11:685)
But that devotion must be like a river flowing
towards sea and does not stop until it meets it. Thus the devotee
must be ceaselessly devoted to me with all his feelings in order to reach
me and become one with me. (11:686-688). Real devotion is that which
sees my presence everywhere right from a small ant onwards and in all living
and non-living things. And when he sees thus, then he will experience
my form and with that naturally see me. (11:690-691). As soon as
one experiences my form his ego is destroyed and duality vanishes.
Then he realises the natural oneness between me, himself and the entire
universe. What is more, by becoming one with me, he gets absorbed
in Me. (11:694-695)
All actions of such a devotee are for my sake and there is nothing in this world he loves apart from Me. He considers Me alone as the fruits of his actions in this world and the next and considers Me as his goal in life. He forgets the word "creatures" because he sees me in everything and thus with an attitude of equality and without enmity he worships everything. Such a devotee, when he leaves his material body, reaches Me and remains unified with Me." (11:696-699).
Adityas, Ashwinikumars, Vasus (11:141-147) : See notes under Ch 10.
Four armed form of Shri Krishna. (11:185-196): Lord Vishnu is depicted as having a body like a man but with four arms. Shri Krishna being an avatar of Lord Vishnu is also thus depicted by some Purana writers further implying that contemporary people knew that he was an avatar. This is apparently due to piousness which overrides rational facts. logic or internal consistency. Many deities are depicted as having more than one head and more than two arms. E.g. Brahmadeo with four heads. Lord Shiva as Panchaanan is shown as having five heads and ten hands. Durga is shown as having one head but six or eight hands.
Abodes of various deities: (11:255-265). Satyalok is the plane on which Brahmadeo is said to live. Kailas is the abode of Lord Shiva (Mahadeo) and his consort Parvati. Lord Vishnu’s abode is Vaikuntha where he is depicted as lying on the bed of the great snake Shesha with thousand heads, in Kshirasagar the ocean of milk. Shesha is supposed to be holding and supporsting the earth on his head. Indra lives in Heaven while Asuras, demons live in Patal the nether world. Nagas (serpents) are also supposed to live in the Nether place.
Fourteen worlds: (11:255-265). Brahmadeo when ordered to create the universe is believed to have created the fourteen Bhuvans which implies worlds or planes. The seven higher planes (lokas) arranged in increasingly higher order are: Bhu (earth), Bhuva, Swarga (heaven), Maha, Jana, Tapa, Satya, occupied by spiritual persons of increasingly higher achievement. Bhuva is occupied by souls who are burdened with desires etc., Swarga by deities and persons who have accumulated enough merit, higher planes by persons who worked towards liberation. Souls who are in Bhuva and Swarga are reborn on earth in conditions depending upon their Karma. Souls in Maha and Jana planes are reborn only if they wish so generally for doing good to people. Souls in Tapa and Satya are not reborn. There are seven Patalas or nether planes below the earth plane. Their names and occupants are: Atal (Bal son of Mayaasura), Vital (Lord Hatakeshwar), Sutal (Asura king Bali whom Lord Vishnu himself guards), Talaatal (Mayaasura the king of Danavas), Mahaatal (Cobras, the sons of Kadru), Rasaatal (Daityas called Nivatkavach) and Paataal (Nagas headed by Vasuki). The occupants of the Pataalas live in splendour and are free from all worldly worries. (they are the same as hell or narak as thought by some people. There are 28 naraks located below earth plane to the south. Individuals are assigned a particular narak with specific paunishments depending upon the Karmas.
Prakriti, Purush and Maya: (11:514-518). (See Chap. 13)
Shrutis and Smritis (11:514-518). Shrutis are those texts which were heard but not written. These are the Vedas including Upanishads. Smritis are later compositions which were written. These include the Codes like Manusmriti.
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