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(Chapter-wise Summary)



Arjuna mistakenly thinks that Shri Krishna was against actions and asks why in that case he was advising him to fight.   Shri Krishna explains:


Dnyaneshwar Maharaj compares these two paths to a fruit (Self-realisation) on a tree, which a bird (Jnanayogi) can fly and eat directly while a human being (Karmayogi) has to laboriously climb the tree, branch after branch, to get at it.


Abandoning action is not non-action

It was mentioned in the previous chapter that an Action does not bind (i.e, it becomes a Non-action by not being added to the aggregate of one’s karmas) if it is done without desire for the fruits thereof and offering them to God.

Even desireless actions are relevant only until one attains Self-realisation.  A person always engrossed in the Self, even while going about doing his duties, does not get bound by the actions because he is satiated with the knowledge of the Self and with that he has finished the duties of his lifetime.  Therefore, he does not get loaded by his actions  (karmas).

(NOTE. Today, Swadharma is mistakenly interpreted as the Hindu religion.  In the days of Sauti (~450 BC), Swadharma was defined as the righteous behaviour prescribed for members of each caste in the then prevalent four-caste system.  This custom continued even after the British conquered India.  It progressively changed with the new socio-economic situation brought about by the new regime, especially the clerical jobs which required a routine not quite compatible with the classical Hindu routine.  The education and learning, confined earlier to the study of the Vedas and scriptures, was extended to the study of foreign languages, sociology, history, geography, science, engineering and modern mathematics.  This was opened to all castes.  Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas entered the professions in the field of engineering and technology earlier practiced by the Shudras.  Opening of the services as well as education to all castes and religions contributed to weakening the caste system as far as jobs were concerned.  However, the caste system still remains deep-rooted in the minds of people at least as far as social interactions like marriages are concerned especially in rural areas.  What the new Swadharma would be under these conditions is not well defined but it is reasonable to assume that it would have an ethical base and would imply compliance with the national and international laws which are all well codified.  Of course, since Sauti’s time many religions like Christian, Muslim, and Buddhist have been founded and all try to assert their own superiority).

Characteristics of a Desireless Person

Outwardly, a Desireless Person may appear to behave like others, but internally he is steady, always absorbed in meditation on the Supreme Self.  Being in control of his sense organs he is not afraid of sense-objects and nor does he avoid his duties.  While he lets his action-organs do their task he is not affected by the resultant feelings (of pleasure or pain or the ego that he is the doer).  He is not influenced by temptations or by lust.  His inner state is not apparent to others since outwardly he behaves like the rest.  Such a person may be considered as liberated and should be specifically called a yogi. (Shri Krishna advises Arjuna to be one].

Brahmadeo's Advice on Behaviour

Shri Krishna told Arjuna the following old legend:
When Brahmadeo created this world and with it the humans, he also created the code of behaviour of actions (Dharma) for them.  But the code, being subtle, could not be understood, so they asked Brahmadeo what the basis of their existence in the world was.
Brahmadeo replied that:

Brahmadeo also warned that,
  then he would face many calamities, lose his wealth without being able to enjoy it.

He who forsakes the code loses his liberty.  Fate punishes him considering him a thief and snatches everything from him.  Even if he asks for mercy he is not set free until the end of time.  Therefore, one should always be alert and follow one's code.

Brahmadeo further advised that,

Shri Krishna then states that, Shri Krishna further warns that, JNANAYOGA NOT TO BE TOLD TO THE UNFIT

Shri Krishna then advises Arjuna,


Shri Krishna further elaborated on the influence of desire and anger as,

Once a person loses anger and desire, he will realise Brahman and enjoy its bliss.




CH:  1 / 23  / 4 / 5 / 6 / 7 / 8 / 9 / 10 / 11 / 12 / 13 / 14 / 15 / 16 / 17 / 18

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Dr V. V. shirvaikar,                                     email: vshirvaikar@yahoo.com
A-23 Yashodhan Soc.
Chintamaninagar 2,
Pune 411037, INDIA

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